We investigate the excitation spectrum and compressibility of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in an infinite tube potential in the parameter regime where the transition between superfluid and supersolid phases occurs. Our study focuses on the density range in which crystalline order develops continuously across the transition. Above the transition the superfluid shows a single gapless excitation band, phononic at small momenta and with a roton at a finite momentum. Below the transition, two gapless excitations branches (three at the transition point) emerge in the supersolid. We examine the two gapless excitation bands and their associated speeds of sound in the supersolid phase. Our results show that the speeds of sound and the compressibility are discontinuous at the transition, indicating a second-order phase transition. These results provide valuable insights into the identification of supersolid phenomena in dipolar quantum gases and the relationship to supersolidity in spin-orbit coupled gases.

P. B. Blakie, L. Chomaz, D. Baillie, F. Ferlaino, “Compressibility and speeds of sound across the superfluid-to-supersolid phase transition of an elongated dipolar gas”, Phys. Rev. Res. 5, 033161 (2023).


Related to Project A07