The large density of gluons, which is present shortly after a nuclear collision at very high energies, can lead to the formation of a condensate. We identify a gauge-invariant order parameter for condensation based on elementary nonperturbative excitations of the plasma, which are described by spatial Wilson loops. Using real-time lattice simulations, we demonstrate that a self-similar transport process towards low momenta builds up a macroscopic zero mode. Our findings reveal intriguing similarities to recent discoveries of condensation phenomena out of equilibrium in table-top experiments with ultracold Bose gases.

J. Berges, K. Boguslavski, M. Mace, and J. M. Pawlowski, “Gauge-invariant condensation in the nonequilibrium quark-gluon plasma”, Phys. Rev. D 102, 034014 (2020).


Related to Project: B03, A01, A02