We study the performance of efficient quantum state tomography methods based on neural-network quantum states using measured data from a two-photon experiment. Machine-learning-inspired variational methods provide a promising route towards scalable state characterization for quantum simulators. While the power of these methods has been demonstrated on synthetic data, applications to real experimental data remain scarce. We benchmark and compare several such approaches by applying them to measured data from an experiment producing two-qubit entangled states. We find that in the presence of experimental imperfections and noise, confining the variational manifold to physical states, i.e., to positive semidefinite density matrices, greatly improves the quality of the reconstructed states but renders the learning procedure more demanding. Including additional, possibly unjustified, constraints, such as assuming pure states, facilitates learning, but also biases the estimator.

M. Neugebauer, L. Fischer, A. Jäger, S. Czischek, S. Jochim, M. Weidemüller, and M. Gärttner, “Neural-network quantum state tomography in a two-qubit experiment”, Phys. Rev. A 102, 042604 (2020).


Related to Project A04, A05