A major goal toward understanding far-from-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems consists in finding indications of universality in the sense that the dynamics no longer depends on microscopic details of the system. We realize a large range of many-body spin systems on a Rydberg atom quantum simulator by choosing appropriate Rydberg state combinations. We use this platform to compare the magnetization relaxation dynamics of disordered Heisenberg XX-, XXZ- and Ising Hamiltonians in a scalable fashion. After appropriate rescaling of evolution time, the dynamics collapse onto a single curve. We find that the observed universal behavior is captured by theoretical models that only consider local pairs of spins. Associated to each pair is a local quasi-conserved quantity, allowing us to describe the early time dynamics of the system in terms of an integrable model similar to systems featuring prethermalization. Since the dynamics of pairs are independent of the type of Hamiltonian up to a scaling factor, this integrable model explains the observed universal relaxation dynamics of disordered Heisenberg quantum spin systems.
T. Franz, S. Geier, C. Hainaut, N. Thaicharoen, A. Braemer, M. Gärttner, G. Zürn, M. Weidemüller, “Observation of universal relaxation dynamics in disordered quantum spin systems”, arXiv:2209.08080 (2022).
Related to Project A05