Nuclear collisions at sufficiently high energies are expected to produce far-from-equilibrium matter with a high density of gluons at early times. We show gauge condensation, which occurs as a consequence of the large density of gluons. To identify this condensation phenomenon, we construct two local gauge-invariant observables that carry the macroscopic zero mode of the gauge condensate. The first order parameter for gauge condensation investigated here is the correlator of the spatial Polyakov loop. We also consider, for the first time, the correlator of the gauge invariant scalar field, associated to the exponent of the Polyakov loop. Using real-time lattice simulations of classical-statistical SU(2) gauge theory, we find gauge condensation on a system-size dependent time scale tcond∼L1/ζ with a universal scaling exponent ζ. Furthermore, we suggest an effective theory formulation describing the dynamics using one of the order parameters identified. The formation of a condensate at early times may have intriguing implications for the early stages in heavy ion collisions.
J. Berges, K. Boguslavski, L. de Bruin, T. Butler, J. M. Pawlowski, “Order parameters for gauge invariant condensation far from equilibrium”, July 25, 2023, arXiv:2307.13669 (2023).
Related to Project B03, A01