Quantum simulators allow to explore static and dynamical properties of otherwise intractable quantum many-body systems. In many instances, however, the read-out limits such quantum simulations. In this work, we introduce an innovative experimental read-out exploiting coherent non-interacting dynamics. Specifically, we present a tomographic recovery method allowing to indirectly measure the second moments of the relative density fluctuations between two one-dimensional superfluids, which until now eluded direct measurements. Applying methods from signal processing, we show that we can reconstruct the relative density fluctuations from non-equilibrium data of the relative phase fluctuations. We employ the method to investigate equilibrium states, the dynamics of phonon occupation numbers and even to predict recurrences. The method opens a new window for quantum simulations with one-dimensional superfluids, enabling a deeper analysis of their equilibration and thermalization dynamics.
M. Gluza, T. Schweigler, B. Rauer, C. Krumnow, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Eisert: Quantum read-out for cold atomic quantum simulators, Commun. Phys. 3, 12 (2020).
Related to Project A03