Universal scaling behavior in the relaxation dynamics of an isolated two-dimensional Bose gas is studied by means of semi-classical stochastic simulations of the Gross–Pitaevskii model. The system is quenched far out of equilibrium by imprinting vortex defects into an otherwise phase-coherent condensate. A strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point is identified, associated with a slowed decay of the defects in the case that the dissipative coupling to the thermal background noise is suppressed. At this fixed point, a large anomalous exponent η ≃ -3 and, related to this, a large dynamical exponent z ≃ 5 are identified. The corresponding power-law decay isfound to be consistent with three-vortex-collision induced loss. The article discusses these aspects of non-thermal fixed points in the context of phaseordering kinetics and coarsening dynamics, thus relating phenomenological and analytical approaches to classifyingfar-from-equilibrium scaling dynamics with each other. In particular, a close connection between the anomalous scaling exponent η, introduced in a quantum-field theoretic approach, and conservation-law induced scaling in classical phase-ordering kinetics is revealed. Moreover, the relation to superfluid turbulence as well as to driven stationary systems is discussed.
M. Karl, T. Gasenzer: Strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point in a quenched two-dimensional Bose gas, New. J. Phys. 19 (2017) 093014
Related to Project A04, B03