**Abstract:**

Calculating the dynamics of gauge theories, which underlie some of the most successful models in physics, is extremely challenging for classical computers. An alternative to computation is quantum simulation using tunable physical systems in which gauge symmetry constraints can be effectively implemented. Zhou *et al*. studied the thermalization of a U(1)-symmetric gauge theory using cold bosonic atoms trapped in a tilted staggered optical lattice. The system’s evolution depended on whether the gauge constraint was enforced. Additionally, different gauge-symmetric initial states with the same energy density evolved to the same thermal state.

**Z.-Y. Zhou, G.-X. Su, J. C. Halimeh, R. Ott, H. Sun, P. Hauke, B. Yang, Z.-S. Yuan, J. Berges, J.-W. Pan, “Thermalization dynamics of a gauge theory on a quantum simulator”, Science 377 (2022).**

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abl6277

Related to Project B04, A01, A02, C06