The analytic continuation from the Euclidean domain to real space of the one-particle irreducible quantum effective action is discussed in the context of generalized local equilibrium states. Discontinuous terms associated with dissipative behavior are parametrized in terms of a conveniently defined sign operator. A generalized variational principle is then formulated, which allows to obtain causal and real dissipative equations of motion from the analytically continued quantum effective action. Differential equations derived from the implications of general covariance determine the space-time evolution of the temperature and fluid velocity fields and allow for a discussion of entropy production including a local form of the second law of thermodynamics.
S. Floerchinger: Variational principle for theories with dissipation from analytic continuation, JHEP 1609 (2016) 099
Related to Project C06